Wandering around the 35 best museums in Moscow is a story about the beauty of white stone, which was first mentioned in annals from 1147. Moscow is a city of museums, ancient and modern. Visiting them, you understand how rich and diverse the history of the Russian capital was.
Conflicting feelings arise in the soul when you see the innumerable treasures of the Russian tsars and standing at their throne. Gratitude for the fact that they were able to leave such a wealth as inheritance to other generations, and indignation at the degree of permissibility to them.
But the feeling of gratitude wins because each of the visitors can now see exhibits of incredible beauty. The expositions reflect the history not only of the city, but of the whole of Russia. So, we offer an overview and a list of the best museums in Moscow that you must visit.
The main treasury of the Russian state, located in the Kremlin in the museum of the same name, the most visited place in Moscow. All year round there are lines of people who want to look at a collection of unique jewelry. Even Peter the Great issued a decree on the strict preservation of the precious luxury goods of royal families for the state. At first, everything related to the treasures was stored in the Diamond Office of the Winter Palace.
During the First World War, they were transported to the Kremlin, where they spent 8 years before the examination conducted by a special commission. She determined the true value of the items and made a decision on the inviolability of the collection and the need to include it in the USSR Gokhran. The rules for visiting the Diamond Fund provide for a pass through a metal detector, so you should not come here with unauthorized items. All exhibits are placed in glass cases; excursions are usually accompanied by a guide who briefly talks about the history of a precious exhibit.
In the center of the hall, in 4 showcases, gold (100) and platinum (20) nuggets of amazing sizes and shapes resembling outlandish animals or mythical creatures are presented. One of them is called the “Devil” for its external resemblance. Among the gold nuggets there is a real giant “Big Triangle”, weighing 36 kg and which is by far the largest nugget in the world.
The hall of royal relics shakes with brilliant magnificence of its exhibits: royal regalia, awards, gifts. General admiration here is the Great Imperial Crown, made on the occasion of the coronation of Catherine the Great. The silver crown is decorated with 4936 diamonds and large selected pearls arranged in 2 rows. The crown is crowned with a silver cross, the pedestal of which is the magic “spinel” – a noble red stone.
His choice is not accidental: it is believed that this stone brings great happiness and love to the owner. If this interpretation is attributed to the illustrious Russian empress, then this statement can be believed. The large imperial crown is an unsurpassed example of jewelry art, a true masterpiece in a series of similar products. One cannot but admire the Small Imperial Crown, the scepter, among the jewelry of which is the world-famous diamond “Orlov” (there are many versions of its origin).
The Shah diamond donated by the Iranian shah to Nicholas I as a sign of reconciliation after the murder of A. S. Griboedov, the Russian ambassador, is known throughout the world as a unique stone. There are so many “precious miracles” in the “Diamond Fund” that it is impossible to describe everything, it’s better to look at them. Address: Moscow, 9, Kremlin.
State Darwin Museum
One of the most ambitious zoological museums in Europe. According to visitors’ reviews, it is also the most interesting, especially for schoolchildren. It opened more than a century ago as an institution that was designed to satisfy the desire of people to learn more about nature, about the existence of living organisms in it. Literally from the first minutes of visiting everybody expects a complete mystery of immersion in the stages of life on planet Earth through a demonstration of a film designed directly on the walls of the hall.
It seems that those present are direct participants in terrible cataclysms with explosions, the death of dinosaurs, the emergence of new civilizations. In the main hall, you will meet with numerous representatives of the fauna, ranging from stuffed mammoths to tiny animals. Here is an intriguing model of the very first bathyscaphe, entering which you can see from the porthole a huge walrus, outlandish fish, fancy shells and fantastic algae. Even on the floor there are portholes here through which something interesting is visible.
The expositions are widely acquainted with the animal world of the Moscow Region and Central Russia, developing the interest of the young generation in local history. Even for the smallest, amusing rides-stands with buttons that let out bird voices or the formidable roar of a lion, etc., are thought out here. Everyone, regardless of age, leaves an unforgettable experience after a visit. Address: Vavilova St., 57.
Museum of Automotive Stories
To get to know the city, you need to understand how it lives. And what was the life of the people who over the years shaped his culture. The Soviet period greatly influenced our mentality and culture. One of the amazing locations that can immerse you in the atmosphere of Soviet reality is the Automobile History Museum, located at ul. Koptevskaya, house 71 (metro Voykovskaya). Here, a unique collection of Soviet-made pedal cars is assembled, numerous interactive and information stands, a cinema and a photo exhibition “The World Through the Eyes of a Soviet Man” with works by classics of Soviet photojournalism are available to visitors.
Also, for children aged 3 to 7 years, the opportunity to ride a real rare pedal car in a specially equipped car park is provided.
Address: st. Koptevskaya, house 71 (metro Voykovskaya).
Bunker-42 on Taganka – a symbol of the Cold War
Underground bunker-42, covering an area of 7 thousand square meters. m at a depth exceeding 60 m, was equipped in the 50s of the 20th century as a reliable refuge from the danger of nuclear bombing during the Cold War between the USA and the USSR. The construction was carried out in strict secrecy, the object was referred to as a subway substation, and in fact, the bunker tunnels have access to the Taganskaya ring metro station.
After the secret facility was adopted (1956), officers and employees of the Long-Range Aviation Headquarters were on duty around the clock. Each year, the bunker was replenished with fresh water and food in case of a nuclear war. Only in 2000, after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the bunker was declassified, and now it is a museum and entertainment complex (since 2006).
Visiting this peculiar museum, you once again think about how much effort and finance you have to invest in protecting people from each other. Unfortunately, the current political situation convinces us that the need for this has not disappeared so far. The outer part of the bunker is presented in the form of an ordinary brick building, which includes visitors to the complex. Amazing massive thick doors leading into the dungeon. They are a metal box 40 cm thick, poured inside with concrete.
The main halls of the bunker are located at the level of the 18th floor underground – you have to go down to them along the 65-meter staircase leading down. Labyrinths of corridors with numerous turns create a mysterious mystery of the situation and suggest that such a structure could protect against any catastrophe. The spacious rooms are equipped with a command post, communications, ventilation installations, warehouses with weapons and military equipment. An element of an unusual excursion is a demonstration of a documentary film on the Cold War.
Those who wish can make a symbolic launch of the rocket or find themselves in a situation of nuclear danger, when the lights go out, the siren turns on. Those present put on gas masks and go to the hall indicated by the guides. Here you can try on special uniforms and arm yourself with protective equipment, you can take a picture for memory in such a “outfit” and in the end wish that all this is not useful in real life. Address: Moscow, 5th Kotelnichesky per., 11.
Located on the legendary Red Square – the heart of the Russian capital. The magnificent building with its architecture resembles a fabulous tower of Russian folk tales. Brick patterned walls, numerous aisles with domes and spiers correspond to the medieval style, although the magnificent building was erected in the late 19th century under Alexander II. Outstanding architects Sherwood and Semyonov sought to capture the Russian identity in the exterior of the building. Now this is a wonderful building, the pride of Russia – a historical and architectural monument, protected by the state and UNESCO.
Entering inside, you understand that this is the Temple of the historical fate of Russia, starting from ancient Slavic times to the present. Fates are difficult, bloody and at the same time bright, creative and great. The impression of the temple is enhanced by highly artistic paintings of walls and ceilings by the brilliant painters Repin, Vasnetsov, Aivazovsky, Korovin and other famous brush masters. Restoration of the 90s “revived” the picturesque frescoes with religious subjects after “whitening” them in the Soviet years.
Thematic halls have priceless rarities in their expositions illustrating the course of the historical development of Russia. Fossil mammoth tusks, genuine stone tools, an oak shuttle, the Kolikho dolmen, an idol bronze statue are far from a complete list of unique relics found during archaeological excavations in different regions of the country. It presents the full diversity of the political, economic, cultural and spiritual life of Russian society in the era of stagnation and prosperity. Address: Moscow, pl. Red, 1.
The primordial residence of Russian rulers – the Moscow Kremlin on Borovitsky Hill – is a model of the museum and architectural complex, the center of socio-political, spiritual and cultural life of the country. The boundaries of the artistic and historical complex, outlined by Yuri Dolgoruky and Ivan III, remained unchanged due to the strength of the Kremlin’s ancient cathedrals erected around the perimeter. Subsequent eras left behind many more monuments, recreating the appearance of the irresistibly beautiful Kremlin ensemble, which several times rose from the ashes, like the mythical Phoenix.
High (from 5 to 19 m) walls (total length 2 km 235 m) and Kremlin towers (20) were erected at the end of the 15th century in the form of an irregular triangle. Of these, 3 round corners and 17 square, the Trinity Tower (80 m) is the highest. From childhood, everyone knows the Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell – miraculous casting monuments located on Ivanovskaya Square. The greatest architectural monument is the Arsenal building, created by the famous architect Kazakov; the powerful cannons of Ancient Russia located nearby, military trophies of 1812 are unique rarities. The Palace Square is decorated with a magnificent architectural ensemble of the main residence of the emperors of Russia – the Grand Kremlin Palace, familiar to all from the celebrations that are regularly held in it. Address: Moscow, Kremlin.
The Armory, which is part of the Kremlin Palace ensemble, is located in a separate magnificent building, designed by the famous architect Konstantin Ton. The treasury of Russia contains symbols of the tsarist autocratic power; church robes; jewelry made of silver, gold; carriages, magnificent horse harness, a huge number of luxurious outfits of Russian empresses. It received its name from the arms storage – the Armory Order of the Moscow Kremlin (1547).
The famous exhibit of the Armory is the Monomakh hat made of sable fur, decorated with numerous precious stones, more than once mentioned in winged phrases of works of art and films. No less famous is the dress of Empress Elizabeth, the decoration of which took kilograms of pearls and diamonds. The exhibits of 9 halls dazzle with unprecedented luxury of household items, utensils, clothes, fabrics, ceremonial uniforms, armor, and various accessories. 4000 pieces of decorative and applied art of Russian masters, East and Europe, over 16 centuries of existence, are amazing in skill and beauty. Address: Moscow, Krasnaya pl., D. 1.
Interactive Museum “Mars-Tefo”
A fascinating corner of Martian reality was created on the 4th floor of the Moscow planetarium “Mars-Tefo”, a kind of educational and cognitive interactive center. Here, only the dead can not be delighted with what they saw and what is happening, and the children are immersed in the imitation of a space Martian station, the inhabitants of which they become using computer technology. Area – 1000 square meters. m., consisting of 11 “compartments”, each of which has its own program and an interesting “highlight”.
In a playful way, here they will help to master survival skills at different points of the solar system, to feel like a scientist-researcher or engineer creating new space structures. You can take on the role of a geologist looking for chemical elements and minerals that are vital to life on Mars. A visit to the “space station” stimulates adolescents to make the right decisions, and teaches them how to navigate in unfamiliar situations. Address: st. Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya, 5, p. 1.
Museum of retro cars on Rogozhsky shaft
This is the largest in area and number of vintage cars from all Moscow car malls. It is housed in the buildings of the former factory and impresses visitors with the number of respectable retro-foreign cars, unique home-made products of Russian craftsmen and samples of the domestic automobile industry of past years. The permanent exhibition contains more than 260 copies of various vehicles, including passenger, freight and passenger vehicles. There are models of motorcycles, mopeds, bicycles and special vehicles – the whole panorama of ground vehicles on wheels.
In the first hall, where foreign cars are mainly presented, eyes are scattered from the Cadillacs, Lincoln, Mercedes, Ford, different years and modifications. Famous brands of Russian cars lined up in another hall. Here nostalgic memories evoke Muscovites, Victory, Volga, Oise and military vehicles from the 30s to the 80s.
There are more modern models that have not become objects of mass production – “Gas-3111”, for example. Some models of foreign cars cause a surprised question, how did they get here. Many executive cars were donated to the general secretaries by foreign rulers, many were purchased by motorists. There is even an American sheriff’s car, Santa Claus’s car and other cars unexpected in their purpose. A lot of positive emotions awaits everyone who visits this gigantic retro auto show. Address: st. Rogozhsky Val, 9/2.